solar collector glazing
Renewables Solar System: An application of agriculture in the State of Maharashtra
There is also a growing concern on the environmental degradation caused by conventional sources of energy. Because of these factors have alternative sources of energy acquired great importance in the recent past. Government support and the emphasis on clean energy sources have also led new building being constructed on the basis of these sources. To encourage and increase investment in this sector, the government has recently began allowing plants to earn a% higher than 16% to 17 for electricity produced from renewable energy alternatives. Advantages of solar energy is it runs on the freely available solar energy thus saving electricity costs and fossil fuels, have no fear of power cuts, there is no problem, pollution free and quiet, has a long life, reliable, easy to handle and use, and the significant cost of operation and maintenance. Among non-conventional sources of energy, solar energy is more readily available and is in abundance. Unlike wind power, solar energy has not yet been explored in India. It currently has a solar-based production capacity of about 200 MW electricity.
It is also emphasis on capacity about 20,000 MW of solar capacity by 2020. There are few players signed to provide the technology (photovoltaics, etc.) required to produce an output of solar energy. Webel SL Energy companies like Moser Baer and XL Telecom are known listed companies. Others, such as Euro Multivision recently came out with an IPO. Webel has increased its production capacity of approximately 100MW currently 42 MW in FY08. However, it still generates a large portion of its revenues from foreign markets.
Nearly 55 percent of population State depends on agriculture for their livelihood. This sector was the largest single provider of employment to the rural population of the state. However, the contribution of agriculture in the national economy is reduced during the period due to adverse agro-climatic conditions and faster growth in other sectors particularly in the services sector. Near the area of one third of the state as the region the rain-shadow, where rainfall is scarce and irregular. In these areas, as dry land cultivation is undertaken. Out of the total geographical area state, the proportion of the area of agriculture (56.8 per cent in 2005-06) is much more than that at national level (43.2 percent). Despite spending enormous irrigation projects, the proportion of gross irrigated area to gross cropped area in the state is about 17 percent against about 43 per cent nationally. Most electricity in the State of Maharashtra comes from fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas.
Today the demand for electricity in the state of Maharashtra is increasing while the reserves of fuel fossil exhausted every day. Electricity demand is already more than the production of electricity. We feel Therefore, electricity cuts during the summer. Fortunately sun casts much energy on the state of Maharashtra, if we can trap a few minutes of solar energy, then it is possible to provide electricity for the whole year in India. The Most parts of India get 7 kWh / m meters of energy per day on average over one year. The use photovoltaic systems (PV) to run irrigation systems has been encouraged for several years by various governments and agencies international, but it has been less successful than expected, partly because of high costs. As the solar home systems are becoming more established and more local technical support for PV technology, the use of photovoltaics for irrigation and more. Solar Energy Systems collect energy from sunlight, thermal systems convert into heat, while PV systems convert to electricity. The amount of energy produced varies depending on the location of the system, time of year and weather, although some energy is produced even on cloudy days.
The average area of land showing segregation (black dots) required to replace the global supply primary energy solar electricity. The insulation for most people is 150 to 300 W / m² or 3.5 7.0 kWh / m² / day. Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical purposes. However, all renewable energy, other than geothermal and tidal power, derive their energy from the sun. The benefits of off-grid solar PV in developing countries development include the prevention of fire hazards and pollution caused by oil lamps, the ability to charge mobile phones, and provision of radio, television and computer services.
HISTORY OF SOLAR SYSTEM
The existence of the effect PV has been demonstrated by the physicist Becquerel in 1839. In 1870, Professor W. Grylls Adams experiments on the effect of light on selenium, verify that a flow of electricity has been created, which was called "photo-electric". In 1885, Charles Fritts built the first photo-electric module, showing signs of the direct conversion of solar energy into electrical energy. In 1921, Albert Einstein won Nobel Prize for explanatory theories on the photovoltaic effect. In 1953, leaders of Bell introduced the so-called Bell Solar Battery, showing a sign photovoltaic cells that powered a miniature Ferris wheel. In recent years, selenium has been replaced by silicon as base material for cells.
Agricultural Applications of SOLAR ENERGY in Maharashtra
Among the sources of renewable energy Solar energy has enormous potential for power generation in Maharashtra. There are 250-300 days with a bright sun radiation available in average of 4 to 6 kWh / m² a day. It has a capacity to generate 1.5 million units / MW / year through photovoltaic solar and 2.5 million units / MW / year with systemsaharatra solar thermal is already underway to strengthen this enormous source and developers interested in solar energy project may submit their proposals to Meda. Solar energy can provide and / or complete many needs energy farm. What follows is a brief discussion of some applications of solar energy technologies in agriculture. For more information, you can To view the publications listed below. Depending on location, a 1 kW system can produce 1400-2000 kWh kWh per year. Watts are units of power measured over one second. If one watt of electricity used per hour, the total energy consumed is expressed in watt-hours or 1Wh. Similarly, 1,000 watts of power is expressed in one kilowatts (1 kW) and 1,000 watt hours as a kilowatt-hour (1 kWh). If a system 2kW produces electricity without interruption for five o'clock, the total volume of energy is expressed in 10kWh.
CROP And grain drying
As the sun through large amounts of energy in Maharashtra state, using the sun to dry crops and grain is one of the oldest and most widely used applications of solar energy. The simplest technique and least expensive is to crops to dry naturally in the field, or the spread of cereal and fruit in the sun after harvesting. The disadvantage of these methods is that the cereal crops are likely to be damaged by birds, rodents, wind and rain, and contamination by dust and windblown dust. More sophisticated solar dryers protect grain and fruit, reduce losses, dries faster and more uniformly, and produce a better product than opencast methods.
The basic elements of a solar dryer are an enclosure or shed, screened drying trays or racks, and a solar collector. In hot, arid climates of the collector may not even be necessary. The south side of the chamber itself can be glazed to allow sunlight to dry the material. The collector can also be simple as a glass box with an interior of dark color to absorb solar energy that heats the air. The hot air moves in the solar collector, either by natural convection or forced by a fan through the material to dry. The size of the sensor and air flow depends the amount of dry material, the moisture content of the material, moisture from the air, and the average amount of solar radiation during the drying season.
AND WATER Space Heating
Livestock and dairy operations have often important air and heating requirements of water. hog and poultry raising living animals in enclosed buildings, where it is necessary carefully controlled temperature and air quality in order to maximize the health and growth of animals. These facilities must replace the air Internal regularly to remove moisture, toxic gases, odors and dust. Heating the air, if necessary, requires large amounts of energy. With good planning and design, solar / radiators can be incorporated in buildings Farm to preheat the fresh air. These systems can also cause or increase levels of natural ventilation during the summer months. Solar water heaters can provide low to medium temperature hot water for cleaning pens. commercial dairy farms use large quantities energy to heat water for cleaning equipment, as well as warm and stimulate cows' udders. water heating and cooling Milk may represent up to 40% of the energy used in a dairy farm. systems, solar water heater can be used provide some or all of these hot water requirements.
Another agricultural application of solar energy energy is heating the greenhouse. commercial greenhouses typically rely on the sun to meet their lighting needs, but are not designed to use the sun for heating. They rely on gas and oil heaters to maintain the temperatures necessary to grow crops in the colder months. solar greenhouses, however, are designed to use solar energy for heating and lighting. A solar greenhouse has a thermal mass collecting and storing solar thermal energy and insulation to keep the heat for use during the night and on cloudy days. A greenhouse Solar is oriented to maximize southern exposure windows. Its northern side has little or no glazing, and is well insulated. To reduce heat loss, the glass itself is also more effective than single pane glass, and various products are available from two facets of "cellular" glazing. A solar greenhouse reduces the consumption of fossil fuels for heating. A water heater gas or oil can be used as supplemental heating, or to increase levels carbon dioxide to encourage more plant growth.
The electricity supply DISTANCE
Solar electric or photovoltaic (PV) systems convert sunlight directly into electricity. They can power an electrical device, directly or storing solar energy in a battery. A "remote" location may be several miles or as little as 50 feet (15 meters) from a power source. PV systems can be much cheaper than installing power lines and transformers in step-down applications such as electric fencing, lighting and water pumping.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems for water pumping may be the most cost effective water pumping option in places where there is no existing line. When properly sized and installed, PV water pumps are very reliable and require little maintenance. The size and cost of PV pumping system of water depends on the local solar resource, the depth of pumping, water demand, and purchase the system and installation costs. Although today's prices for photovoltaic panels are most irrigation systems too expensive, PV systems are very profitable for the supply of livestock water distance, aeration ponds and small irrigation systems.
Government Energy Policy village
Prime objective of this is to provide energy for cooking, electricity and power through various forms of locally available biomass materials for energy production and distribution will be managed by the local communities. Second objective is to consider an energy plan that includes assessment of total demand, the availability of resources and a combination of technologies appropriate to meet demand.
Village Energy Security Programme was launched by the Ministry of sources Non-Conventional Energy (MNES), New Delhi Govt. India in the year 2004-05. The program is designed so that should help households in these remote villages or hamlets that have yet more conventional energy sources and will not be electrified by conventional sources until 2012. It has huge social aspect in the development of the nation as it will ensure full security of energy (Electricity, cooking, etc. Motive Power) to villagers to make them self-sufficient program. Under village energy security (Vespa) the exercise of identification of non-electrified villages that are not possible to be connected through the grid are considered as "remote" villages. A detailed study of remote villages should be undertaken without losing sight of the feasibility and viability alternatives for biomass gasification / electricity generation biofuels base, improving chullha / plants biogas for cooking energy, etc. In general the villages between a minimum of 25 households and a maximum of 200 households can be considered VESPA potential in the village. The principal and the principal objective of this program is the active participation of villagers and participation of women in particular by training Village Energy Committee (VEC). The program provides a contribution to the total project cost of the respective State Governments / beneficiary.
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT POLICY
Village Energy Security Programme (Vespa) is the programmers launched by the Ministry of non-conventional energy sources (MNES), New Delhi keeping in mind to make a particular village or hamlet census enumeration Village self-sufficient in terms of energy needs by using locally available renewable energy sources and full participation of local communities.
- agricultural technology is changing. Farm machinery, farm buildings and production facilities are constantly improved. You should consider these factors when purchasing and installing a solar system. Paybacks can be reduced by multiple use of a solar system, as for heating and crop drying.
- Energy Solar is an excellent source of alternative energy, because there is no pollution generated Although it is used to reduce pollution we made every watt of electricity from the sun. Even if we can reduce the amount of energy we used should at least control, where the energy comes.
- There are no costs associated with the use of energy solar other than the cost of manufacturing components, the purchase and installation. After the initial investment, there are no additional costs associated with its use.
- Solar energy systems are flexible and scalable. This means that your first solar project may be small, and you can expand your solar electric system to meet your needs through the installation of several signs. Starting with a small project, you can avoid a significant investment up front.
- As our use of solar energy increases, our reduces demand on fossil fuels. This will extend the time before our supply of fossil fuels (oil and natural gas, etc …) expires or the costs become so high that the rich can afford.
- There is no pollution associated with the use of solar energy. No chimneys pumping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere means less pollution.
- A solar electric system installed in a home may potentially eliminate 18 tons of emissions of greenhouse gases into the environment each year.
- Solar energy is a silent process. No noise.
- With space heaters using fossil fuels, there is always the risk of a heat exchanger heat cracking, which can cause poisoning of CO2 (carbon dioxide). This is not a problem when using solar energy.
- A great advantage of solar energy for remote applications. It is the best way to supply electricity in isolated areas of the world where the cost associated with the installation of distribution lines of energy, it is difficult or impossible.
- Solar energy can be used to heat water and space heating.
- You can build your own collection necessary parts or purchase many solar kits that are available. Using kits takes a lot of work to build your own system.
About the Author
- S.S.C. in Maharashtra State Board passed in Mar 1994 (42.28%)
- H.S.C. in Maharashtra State Board passed Feb-1998 (53.33%)
- D.C.M in S.K. Computer, Solapur passed Dec-1998 (First class)
- B.A Geography in Shivaji University Kolhapur passed Mar-2001 (63.66%)
- M.A / M.Sc Geography in Shivaji University Kolhapur passed May-2004 (56.96%with B+)
- Diploma in Tourism in Solapur University passed May-2005 (77%)
- Experiences of lectureship in geography subject of 5 year.
- Experiences of GIS Tec.