Tag Archives: environment

Grants Solar Heating

grants solar heating
grants solar heating
Solar Power Energy subsidies in Andalusia in Spain.?

I would like to obtain information on availability and criteria for obtain a grant for installing solar energy to my home to reduce the cost of heating water. We live in the province of Malaga (Axarquia region) of Andalusia, Spain.

Hello, I saw your question while I search for information on solar energy. I had solar water in an old house and found I never ran out of hot water. The ON has a good element solar energy, this week, here's the link if you do not have paper. http://www.surinenglish.com/noticias.php?Noticia=8496 Regards Liam

Residential Solar Design

residential solar design
residential solar design
What you must be a design engineer photovolatic?

I want to go to the field of photovoltaic design in some years after the economy gets better and I have some more experience as a regular electrical designer. At now I understand everything and spec transformers after the electricity company in commercial and residential buildings. Regarding the job descriptions, all the ads I saw were rather vague. They want some solar experience, a BSEE or equivalent experience, a background power / system design, etc. The fact is that PV is so much a niche sector that I've never taken lessons at school even talk about it (even with the 3-phase power, we had only weeks to explain it) and the information there is rare. I think certification NABCEP, but what else would benefit?

It seems to me that is oriented towards NABCEP installer certification rather than design, but they would probably teach the NEC requirements and familiarize yourself with the specialty products available. You could study the documentation of manufacturer photovoltaic and contact some of them to see if they have information not on their websites. Go to shows and fairs Energy and talk to suppliers. Attend seminars set up by suppliers. Keep looking for the kind of trade magazine Web sites and subscribe to related trade magazines print that you can find. Eng-tips.com may help: http://www.eng-tips.com/threadminder.cfm?pid=731 http://www.eng-tips.com/threadminder.cfm?pid=626

Solar Powered Home System – Easy Way To Have a Solar Powered

Effective Solar Products

effective solar products
SOLAR .. is effective.?

Is it really cheaper in the long term solar? What are the benefits of obtaining solar energy products around home? Is it really benficial?

The solar energy is a term describing the methods of harnessing the energy of light the sun. Has been present in many traditional building methods for centuries, but interest has increased in developed countries as environmental costs and limited supply of other energy sources as fossil fuels are realized. Solar energy is currently being used in remote locations and in space from other sources are absent. Contents [hide] 1 The energy of the Sun 2 Rating 2.1 Method of energy transformation 2.2 The complexity Focus mechanism type 3 2.3 Advantages and disadvantages of solar energy 3.1 Advantages 3.2 Disadvantages 4.1 4 Types of technologies architecture design solar heating systems 4.2 4.3 The solar photovoltaic cells 4.3.1 Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) systems, solar thermal power plants 4.4 4.4.1 updraft tower 4.4.3 Energy 4.4.2 Solar Tower pond phytochemical 4.6 4.5 solar chemical energy storage (biofuel) 4.7 4.8 The solar lighting solar cooker 5, 6 energy storage deployment of solar energy networks in Africa 6.2 Asia 6.1 Australia 6.3 6.4 6.5 Europe, North America 7 Implementation solar energy in the transport 8 solar energy production in the world 8.1 Large PV power plants 9 See also 10 References 11 External links [edit] The energy resources of solar global Sun. The colors of the premises Maps of solar energy, averaged across the years of 1991-1993. The scale is in watts per square meter. The area of ??land needed to supply the present world primary energy demand in solar energy by using the available technology is represented by the dark disks.The rate at which solar radiation reaches a unit area in space in the region of the orbit of the Earth is 1366 W / m, measured on a normal surface (at right angles) to the sun. This number is known as the solar constant. [1] of the energy received, approximately 19% is absorbed by the atmosphere, while clouds on average reflect 35% of the total energy. The generally accepted rule is that the peak power of about 1,000 W / m² at the sea level. [2] The average power which is a significant amount when one is considering the use of solar energy is lower. The image at right shows the average power available from the solar surface in W / m² after absorption in the atmosphere and reflection by clouds, calculated from satellite cloud data on average over three years from 1991 1993 (24 hours). For example, in North America the average power of solar radiation is somewhere between 125 and 375 W / m², between 3 and 9 kWh / m² / day. [3] Note that this is the maximum power available, and not the power supplied by solar energy technology. For example, photovoltaic panels on the currently have an efficiency of ca. 15% and, therefore, a solar panel delivers 19 to 56 W / m² or 0.45-1.35 kWh / m² / day (annual day and night average). The dark disks in the image on the right are an example for areas of land that, if covered with solar panels, which produce a little more energy in the form of electricity the total primary energy supply in 2003. [4] That is, the solar cells with an 8% efficiency is installed in these areas offer a bit more energy in the form of electricity than what is currently available from oil, gas, hydropower, nuclear energy, etc combined. It is also noted a recent concern is global dimming, an effect of pollution that is allowing sunlight to reach increasingly to the surface of the Earth. It is closely linked with pollution particles and global warming, and is primarily of concern about global climate change issues, it is also of concern for advocates of solar energy due to actual and potential decline in available energy future energy solar. The order of magnitude of energy 10% less solar energy available at sea level, mainly due to the more intense reflections tag into space. That is, the clouds are whiter, brighter, as the dust pollution serves as a point of initiation of the vapor-liquid phase change and generates clouds otherwise would be a full moisture but otherwise clear sky. After passing through the Earth's atmosphere, most of the sun's energy is in the form of visible radiation and infrared. Plants use solar energy to create chemical energy through photosynthesis. Humans regularly use this energy or wood burning fossil fuels, or when simply eating the plants. [Edit] Classification A wide range of existing energy technologies can make use of energy solar radiation reaching the Earth. These can be classified into a number of different ways. [Edit] Method of transformation of solar energy can be transformed for use elsewhere or used directly. A photovoltaic cell produces electricity directly from solar energy hydroelectric energy produced indirect solar. Itaipu Dam, Brazil / ParaguayDirect solar energy involves only a transformation into a usable form. For example: sunlight hits a cell photovoltaics (also called photoelectric cell) to create electricity. Sunlight reaches the surface of a dark absorption and thermal solar collector heated surface. The thermal energy can be carried by a fluid circuit. The sunlight hits a solar sail spacecraft and is directly converted into a force on the sail causing the movement of the ship. Sunlight strikes a light plant and makes the blades to rotate, but little practical application has been found to this effect. The Sunlight is concentrated in a channel mounted on the outside to reflect sunlight carried out inside buildings to complement the lighting. Indirect solar energy is more than one transformation to reach a usable form. Many other types of power generation solar energy indirectly. Some of these are as indirect are often excluded from discussion of solar energy: Vegetation uses photosynthesis to convert solar energy into chemical energy, which can later be burned as fuel to generate electricity (see bio). Methane (natural gas) and hydrogen can be derived from biofuels. Hydroelectric dams and wind turbines solar powered through its interaction with the Earth's atmosphere and outcome events weather. Ocean thermal energy production uses the thermal gradients are present in the deep ocean to generate energy. These temperature differences are ultimately due to the sun's energy. Energy from oil, coal and peat originated as energy solar captured by vegetation in the distant past geological and fossil. Hence the term fossil fuel. The large time delay between the input power solar and recovery does not mean that they are virtually renewable and therefore not usually classified as solar energy. [Edit] The solar complex mechanism power may be classified as passive or active: passive solar systems are systems that do not involve the entry of any other form of energy other than sunlight, though (in the case of solar heat through windows) curtains or panels can be used to reduce night heat loss and manual thermostat or air vents works (but not the fans) to prevent overheating. Passive solar water heaters, for example, using a thermosiphon and not bombs. The thermosiphon only works when it is hot, reduce heat loss at night. Other heating systems use a thermal diode similar effect. water distillers Passive solar can rely on capillary action to pump water. Active solar systems use additional mechanisms such as circulating pumps, air blowers or Collecting monitoring systems aimed at the sun. These mechanisms are usually powered by electricity and may have other electronic automatic controls or computer. [Edit] Point System approach to focus dish Stirling system at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in the use of radiation SpainEffective often requires solar radiation (light) to be oriented to provide greater light intensity. Consequently, another classification scheme solar energy systems is following: the focus point. A satellite dish or target concentration, possibly in combination with a heliostat is used to concentrate light on a point (Focus). In the center could have put a high concentration of photovoltaic cells (solar panels) or "sink" thermal energy as the Stirling engine used. line approach. A parabolic trough or a series of long narrow mirrors are used to concentrate light along a line. The SEGS systems in California are an example of this type of system. No focusing energy systems include solar hot water and most cells PV. These systems have the advantage that they can make use of diffuse solar radiation (which may not be the focus). However, if high temperatures are required, such system is usually not appropriate due to the intensity of radiation lower. Solar water heating is probably the most practical and economical way to take advantage "Not focused" solar power [edit] Advantages and disadvantages of solar energy [edit] Advantages Solar energy is relatively free of contamination, although the impact of environmental pollution during the manufacturing and construction should not be neglected. Facilities can operate with little maintenance or intervention after the initial installation. Solar power is becoming more and more economical as costs associated with the decrease in production, technology becomes more efficient in energy conversion and costs of alternative energy sources increase. Solar energy can be seen as a local resource, because to regional climatic variations. Some countries, regions, etc. (eg, island communities, desolate regions and ocean-going vessels) is harvested solar energy as a viable energy source in part because the comparative costs associated with the purchase of energy from other sources. When connecting to the network generation solar electricity can displace the higher cost of electricity during peak hours (in many climatic regions), can reduce network load, and may eliminate the need for local battery power for use in times of darkness and high local demand, this application is encouraged by net metering). Time use net metering can be very favorable to small photovoltaic systems. [Edit] Disadvantages Solar power on the surface of the Earth has a number of disadvantages be addressed engineering problems before it can be an effective source of power: It is more practical in certain areas with favorable climate and latitude. That is, areas near the tropics and are relatively free of clouds. Note that some solar applications such as solar water heaters, operate While using the technology is not focused and indirect sunlight. Places in the best position for solar arrays tend to be far from the city's most energy demand (of course, because a lot of energy demand is used for heating in cold northern climates, where solar radiation is lower) Not available at night and is reduced when cloud cover, decreasing the reliability of peak output performance. Should become another form of energy that is stored for when conditions are prohibitive transport or driving. solar cell technologies produce DC power which must be converted to food AC when used in distribution networks. ie. There is an energy cost that reduces the actual power output of solar panels for energy networks remain functional at all times, power plants backup should be kept "hot" replacement for solar power stations, and to stop producing. There is an energy cost to keep the plants 'hot', which includes (in the case of coal plants), the burning of coal. Unfortunately, if the country is not willing to accept voltage drops, the carbon footprint of any solar energy project on a large scale will have to accept the "hot" that power plants produce carbon emissions as their own. Continued progress in the ability to store electricity in large measure the impact of the successful implementation a large solar power station, carbon footprint for free. [Edit] Most solar energy technologies used today advantage as heat or electricity. [Edit] solar design in architecture Main article: Solar passive and active solar design solar can be used to achieve the comfortable temperature and light levels with little or no additional energy. This can be through passive solar energy, where maximizing input sunlight in cold conditions and the reduction in hot weather and active solar energy, the use of additional devices such as pumps and fans to direct air hot or cold liquid. [Edit] Solar heating systems Main article: Solar hot water systems Solar hot water collectors generally composed of solar thermal, a fluid system to move heat from the collector to its point of use, and a reservoir for storing heat for later use. The systems can be used to heat hot water or pool, or to provide heat for a heating circuit. Heat can also be used for industrial applications or as a source energy for other uses such as refrigeration. [Edit] Photovoltaic cells Main article: Solar cell solar panels (photovoltaic panels) in this small yacht at sea can charge the batteries of 12 V to a maximum of 9 amps at full cells, directly sunlightSolar, also known as cells photovoltaic systems are devices or banks of devices that use the photovoltaic effect of semiconductors to generate electricity directly from sunlight. Until recently, its use has been limited due to high manufacturing costs. One cost effective has been used in very low power devices such as calculators with LCDs. Another use has been in remote applications such as roadside emergency telephones, remote sensing, cathodic protection of pipe lines, and limited out- network "uses of energy at home. A third use has been in power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft. However, the steady reduction manufacturing costs (drop 3 to 5% annually in recent years) is expanding the range of profitable applications. The lowest average cost of sales a large solar panel fell from $ 7.50 to $ 4 per watt in 1990 and 2005. In many jurisdictions and tax incentives and rebates, electricity solar, now you can pay for itself within five to ten years in many places. "Networked" systems – ie systems without a battery that connected to the mains through a special converter – now form the bulk of the market. In 2004 world production of solar cells increased by 60%. 2005 is expected to see strong growth again, but shortages of refined silicon have slowed production worldwide since late 2004. [Edit] CPV (CPV) systems, despite significant progress in the last decade the use of solar panels is still relatively expensive compared to electricity generation conventional. One promising way to reduce costs even further is the use of photovoltaic concentrator systems. [5] [6] [7] The idea is to concentrate sunlight using lenses or mirrors on a small panel of high-efficiency solar cells. In this way solar panels are expensive, replaced by cheap plastic or glass dramatically reducing the cost per watt. In addition, the amount of solar energy collected per square meter increases, reducing the area required for the generation solar energy. high performance cells have been developed for special applications such as satellites and space exploration that require high performance. GaAs multijunction devices are the most efficient solar cells to date, reaching the highest efficiency of 39% [8]. They are also some of the cells more expensive per unit area (up to U.S. $ 40/cm2). In Concentration Photovoltaic solar energy systems is concentrated several hundred times, which increases efficiency solar energy conversion and reduce the semiconductor area needed per watt of output power. This can be beneficial as an application of multi-junction solar cells, such as high costs and technical problems to generate large area multijunction photovoltaics are prohibitive in relation to current silicon PV technologies. Since concentration photovoltaic solar tracking required is the best approach for large-scale public services. [9] The different approaches are being evaluated for this purpose, [10], including Fresnel lenses, [11] The concentration parabolic systems by [12] [13] and solar dishes. [14] [edit] Energy solar thermal solar power plants for two, a concentration solar power plant (an example of solar thermal) Main article:. Solar thermal solar thermal can be used to heat a fluid to high temperatures and use it to produce electricity power. [Edit] Current solar tower ascending Main article: Solar updraft tower A tower is a solar updraft relatively low-tech solar thermal power plant, where the air passes under a very large agricultural glass house (between 2 and 30 km in diameter), heated by the sun and channeled upwards towards a convection tower. It then rises naturally and is used to drive turbines that generate electricity. [Edit] Energy Tower A tower is an alternative energy for updraft tower. The "Tower of Power" is hosted by spraying water on top of the tower, the evaporation of water causes a current down by cooling air which increases its density, wind field in the bottom of the tower. Requires a warm and dry large quantities of water (water sea ??can be used for this purpose), but the house does not require large glass tower rising air. [Edit] A solar pond solar pond is a relatively new low cost approach for collecting solar energy. The principle is to fill a pond with 3 layers of water: a top layer with a low-salt layer isolation buffer with a salt gradient, which establishes a density gradient that prevents heat transfer by natural convection in water. A bottom layer is high of salt that reaches a temperature of about 90 degrees Celsius. Different densities in the layers due to its salt content prevent convection currents developing normally transfer heat to the surface and the air above. The heat trapped in the salty bottom layer can be used for different purposes, such as heating buildings, industrial processes or electricity generation. [Edit] Solar solar chemistry chemistry refers to a number of possible processes that harness energy sun by absorbing sunlight in a chemical reaction in a way similar to photosynthesis in plants, but without using living organisms. No practical process has not yet arisen. One promising approach is to use focused sunlight to provide energy to split water into its component hydrogen and oxygen in the presence of a metal catalyst such as zinc. [15] [16] [17] While metals such as zinc, have been shown to photoelectrolysis unit of water, more intensive research has focused on semiconductors. Most research has examined tranisition metal compounds, particularly titanium dioxide, titanates, niobates, tantalates, and many more. Unfortunately, these materials have very low efficiencies, because they need ultraviolet light to drive the water photoelectrolysis. current materials also require a bias voltage supply for the hydrogen and oxygen gas to evolve from the surface, another disadvantage. Current research focuses on Developments of materials capable of dividing the reaction of water with low energy visible light itself. You can also use solar energy to drive industrial chemicals processes without fossil fuels. [Edit] Phytochemistry storage of energy (biofuels) View biofuels and biodiesel, oil seeds plants, in chemical terms, very closely resembles the oil. Many, since the invention of the diesel engine have been using this form of energy captured as fuel sun comparable to petrodiesel – for functional use in any diesel engine or generator and is known as biodiesel. A joint 1998 study by the Department of U.S. Energy (DOE) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) traced many of the costs involved in the production of biodiesel and found that, in general, produces 3.2 units of fuel product energy for every unit of fossil fuel energy consumed. [18] Other biofuels include ethanol, wood for stoves, furnaces and boilers, and natural gas produced from biofuels through chemical processes. [Edit] Solar cooking Main article: A Solar Cooker box solar cooker traps the sun's energy in an insulated box, which have been successfully used for cooking, pasteurization and fruit canning. The kitchen Solar is helping many developing countries countries, both in reducing local demand for firewood and maintaining a cleaner environment for the cooks. The first known western solar oven is attributed to Horace de Saussure. [Edit] Solar lighting inside a building can be lit during daylight hours with light pipes optical fiber connected to a parabolic collector mounted on the ceiling. The manufacturer claims that this gives a more natural interior light and can be used to reduce energy demand electric lighting. [19] [edit] Energy storage Main article: Network storage for an independent power system, some means must be used to store the energy collected for use during the hours of darkness or cloud cover. The following list includes immature and mature techniques: electrochemical batteries in air or cryogenic liquid nitrogen in a compressed air cylinder flywheel energy storage hydrogen produced by electrolysis water and then available for pollution-free fuel surge tank pumped storage hydroelectricity molten salt [20] superconductor magnetic energy storage tank is always a further step of energy conversion, with consequent loss of energy, greatly increasing capital costs. One way around this is to export surplus energy to the electricity grid, drawing back when necessary. This seems the use of grid as a battery, but in reality is based on conventional energy production via the network during the night. However, since the network always has a positive output, the result is exactly the same. Electrical energy costs are highly dependent on consumption by time of day, as the plants should be built for peak power (No average power). Expensive gas "peak generators" should be used when base capacity is insufficient. Fortunately for solar energy, solar energy parallel capacity-energy demand as much of the electricity is to remove the heat produced by solar energy too (air conditioning)! This is less true in the winter. Wind energy solar energy supplements because it can produce energy when there is no sunlight. [Edit] The deployment of solar energy a distribution network of solar power depends largely on local conditions and requirements. But like all industrialized nations share the need electricity, it is clear that solar energy will be increasingly used to provide a cheap supply, reliable electricity. Several experimental photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity from 300 to 600 kW are connected to electricity grids in Europe and the U.S. Other major research is exploring the possibility economical to store the energy obtained from sunlight during the day. [Edit] Africa Africa is home to over 9 million km ² desert Sahara, whose total capacity – assuming 50 MW / km ² day / night partly cloudy with 15% efficiency of photovoltaic solar panels – more than 450 TW, or of 4,000,000 terawatt-hours per year. The current global energy consumption by humans, including all oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and hydroelectric is linked to around 13 TW. [Edit] Australia's largest solar power station in Australia is the matrix 400kWp to Singleton, New South Wales. Additional solar panels Important is the matrix of 220 kWp Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands in southern Australia, the matrix 200kWp in Queen Victoria Market in Melbourne in Kogerah 160kWp matrix City Plaza Sydney. Numerous smaller sets have been established, mainly in remote areas where solar power is cost competitive with diesel. [21] [edit] Asia In 2004, Japan had 1200 MW installed. Japan now consumes about half of world production of solar modules, primarily for connected applications to the residential network. In terms of total installed PV capacity, India is the fourth, after Japan, Germany and the United States (Ministry of unconventional India Energy Sources 2002). Government support and subsidies were the main influences on their development [22]. India's solar potential in the very long term may be unprecedented in the world because it is one of the few places with an ideal combination of solar energy received both high and broad customer base in the same place. potential theoretical Solar India is about 5000 TWh per year (ie 600 GW), far more than its current total consumption. In 2005, the Israeli government announced an international contract construction of a plant of 100 MW of solar energy to supply the electricity needs of more than 200,000 Israelis living in southern Israel. The plan may allow the creation of a giant plant of 500 MW of power, making Israel a leader in solar energy production. [23] [edit] Europe Solar Park 10 megawatts of Bavaria in Germany is the world's largest solar electric system, covering 25 hectares (62 acres) with 57,600 photovoltaic panels. [24] A large plant Photovoltaic solar energy is planned for the island of Crete. Research continues on how to make the actual solar collecting cells less expensive and more efficient. The solar furnace Odeillo-scientific, French CerdagneA large parabolic reflector solar furnace is located in the Pyrenees in Odeillo, France. It is used for the purpose of different research. [25] Another site is the loser in Austria. The Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain, the Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), is the largest research, development and testing of concentrating solar technologies in Europe. [26] In the UK, the building higher in Manchester, the CIS Tower was covered with photovoltaic panels at a cost of £ 5.5 million and started feeding electricity to the national grid in November 2005. [27] On April 27, 2006, GE Energy Financial Services, PowerLight Corporation and Catavento Lda announced it will build the world's largest energy projects solar photovoltaics. Solar power plant of 11 MW, comprising 52,000 photovoltaic modules will be built on a single site in Serpa, Portugal, Southeast 200 kilometers (124 miles) from Lisbon, one of the sunniest regions in Europe. [28] [edit] North America laundry, heating supplements in California water with solar panels on the roof.In some areas of the United States, solar power systems are already competitive with utility systems. Since 2005, there a list of technical conditions to take into account the economic feasibility of going solar: The amount of sunlight that the area, the cost of acquiring the system, capacity the network owner to sell power to the grid, and more importantly, prices of competing energy in the local utility. For example, a photovoltaic system installed in Boston, Massachusetts, produces electricity by 25% less than would be in Albuquerque, New Mexico, but yields more or less the same savings in utility bills because electricity costs more in Boston. In addition to these considerations, many states and regions offer significant incentives to improve the economics of potential consumers. Congress recently approved the first federal tax breaks for residential solar since 1985 – temporary credits for systems installed in 2006 or 2007. Owners can claim a federal credit of up $ 2.000 to cover 30% of the cost of a PV system and another 30% credit up $ 2.000 for a solar thermal system. Fifteen states also offer tax incentives for solar energy, and two dozen states offer direct discounts consumers [29]. Solar One is a pilot project of solar thermal in the Mojave Desert near Barstow, California. Heliostats is used, and technology molten salt storage to achieve longer periods of power generation. Solar Two, also near Barstow, has built and developed on the success Solar. It was an R & D in Barstow, California, funded by the U.S. federal Department Energy. Solar Two used liquid salts as a storage medium continue to provide power for most of the time when sunlight is not available. Its success has led to increased Solar Tres project in Spain. The August 11, 2005, Southern California Edison announced an agreement to purchase solar Stirling engines from Stirling Energy Systems over a twenty year period and in quantities (20,000 units) sufficient to generate 500 megawatts of electricity [30]. These systems – to be installed in an area of ??4,500 (18 km ²) solar farm – are used mirrors to concentrate sunlight and in the engines that drive generators. Less than a month later, Stirling Energy Systems announced a new agreement with San Diego Gas & Electric to provide between 300 and 900 megawatts of electricity. [31] The world's largest solar power plant is located in the Mojave Desert. Solel [32] an Israeli company, operates the plant, which consists of 1000 acres (4 km ²) of solar reflectors. This plant produces 90% of the world's commercially produced energy solar. On January 12, 2006, the Public Utilities Commission of California passed the California Solar Incentive Program [33], a comprehensive program that provides $ 2,800,000,000 incentives toward solar development over 11 years. [Edit] The deployment of solar energy in the transport development of a practice-powered car Solar has been a goal of engineering for twenty years. The center of this development is the World Solar Challenge, a biennial race solar powered car more than 3021 km through central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. stated aim of the race is to promote research in solar energy cars. Teams from universities and companies participate. In 1987, when he founded the winner's average speed was 67 km / h. In the race of 2005 this figure had risen to a record average speed of 103 km / h. [Edit] The World of solar maximum total energy production of solar panels is about 5,300 MW at the end of 2005. (Statistics from the IEA seems to be reported: reported 2,600 MW from 2004, which with 1,700 installed in 2005 would be a cumulative total of 4,300 for 2005). These figures include only the generated PV and no other media produced by solar. The solar reflector plants including the United States would double its total, which at the second cottage on the list. Installed PV from the end of 2004 [34] Field cumulative installed PV capacity in 2004 off-grid PV [KW] Networking [KW] Total [KW] Total [KW] a network linked [KW] Japan 84,245 1,047,746 1,131,991 272,368 267,016 26,000 768,000 794,000 Germany 363,000 360,000 189,600 365,200 175,600 United States 90,000 62,000 Australia 6,760 48 640 780 6670 52 300 44 310 49 079 4769 Netherlands 3071 Spain 3162 14 000 23 000 37 000 10 000 8460 Italy 12 000 18 700 30 700 4700 4400 France 18 300 8000 26 300 5228 4183 Switzerland 20 000 3100 23 100 2100 2000 Austria 16 493 2687 19 180 2347 1833 Mexico 18 172 10 18 182 1 041 0 Canada 13 372 512 13 884 2054 107 Korea 9892 3454 5359 4533 3106 7386 8164 776 UK Norway 75 6813 2197 2261 6888 273 0 [edit] The large PV installations This list shows the largest photovoltaic plants in the world. In comparison, most Solar Plant, SEGS solar energy reflector base in California produces 350 MW and larger nuclear plants generate over 1,000 MW. world's largest plants PV [35] DC Peak Power Location Description MW ? h / year * 11 MW Serpa, Portugal 52,000 6.3-MW solar modules press Mühlhausen Germany 57,600 MW solar modules of 6,750 MW h • 5 Bürstadt, Germany 4,200 30,000 BP solar modules MW Espenhain h • 5 MW, Germany 33,500 5,000 Shell Solar modules MW 4.59 MW • h Springerville, Ariz. 34,980 BP solar modules • h 7,750 MW 4 MW Geiseltalsee, Merseburg, Germany 25,000 BP 3,400 MW solar modules • 4 MW h Göttelborn, Germany 50,000 solar modules (when completed) 8,200 MW • h (when completed) 4 MW Hemau, Germany 32,740 MW of 3,900 solar modules • h 3.9 MW Rancho Seco, CA, USA nana 3.3 MW Dingolfing, Germany Solara, Sharp and Kyocera solar modules 3050 MW 3.3 MW • h Serre, Italy 60000 na solar modules

Solar Center

solar center
solar center
The center of mass of the solar system inside or outside the sun?

It is a center of mass problem. Suppose that the planets are aligned starting with the sun and ending with Neptune (since Pluto is no longer a planet). I just want to know if the center of mass is inside or outside of the sun and preferably how far it is from the center of the sun even if it is not necessary. 10 points to best answer, of course. If you can save it to be too large.

If you have a table of masses and orbital radii, you can estimate. The calculation is not difficult, just annoying. Imagine all the planets are all aligned. Calculate the moments of mass from the center of the sun. Multiply the hours of mass distance from the center of the sun and add all the products. Use the semi-major axis distance to get the answer. Our origin is the sun, he has no time of course. You'll see what planets contribute with important moments (the giant drinks) and did not matter at all. So if you're lazy, just do the 4 large gas planets. Then, divide times the total by the total mass of all the planets and the sun to get the distance to the center of gravity. I guess the result is smaller than the radius of the sun, but I do not know (apparently it is bigger, "said Bill, by just one point from Jupiter). Note that this calculation is an upper limit which greatly overestimates the usual distance from the CM because it assumes the planets are perfectly alligned which never happens in practice. (And use the semi-major axis which is the max). Normally, they vanish. It is possible that the CM is normally in the sun, but from time to time when you get a freak alignment, it takes a teensy bit. Remember that sun himself dancing around the cm and if the planets line up, it goes away. – So, according to figures the bill, the answer would "sometimes, sometimes," according to the alignments. If you want an answer to the "typical" distance cm, a good approach would be to add four times in quadrature planets rather than simple addition. So total time = sqrt ((m1 r1) ^ 2 + (m2 r2) ^ 2 + m3 (r3) ^ 2 + (m4 r4) ^ 2) Divide this by the total mass, m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 + msun, to get your cm.

Conjure One – Center Of The Sun (Solar Stone’s Chilled Out Remix)